Known as the "First Lady of Engineering," Lillian Moller Gilbreth was one of the most fascinating women of her time. She met her husband -- Frank, a contracting engineer -- while working as a psychologist and teacher in New York City. Married in 1904, the Gilbreths worked together in scientific management, and were responsible for the first Time and Motion studies. Frank was the first to employ moving pictures in his studies, and he and Lillian later applied the same principles to operations to improve the surgical techniques of the era. Together, they also made motion studies of the handicapped and World War I amputees, consequently improving physical therapy techniques. The Gilbreths pleased employers by improving the efficiency of factories with time and motion studies. Unions were impressed as well, because the Gilbreths emphasized the well-being of the worker. Lillian combined psychology with efficiency engineering in the kitchen, and later applied her knowledge in designing the first efficiency kitchen. Her close family feelings -- as shown by her work with her husband -- are also expressed in the book Cheaper by the Dozen, a humorous account of her family's household adventures written by two of her twelve children. She has been described by the American Society of Engineers as "without question" the Society's "most famous member of her sex."
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